Was just doing this, and thought it’d be a nice guide to write up.
I’m assuming you already have Apache2 installed on your machine. If not, check how to install Apache 2 on Ubuntu.
Mod_rewrite is a module that allows runtime modification of the URL structure. Typically this is to allow .htaccess directives to implement friendly URLs. This is done frequently in WordPress and many other CMSes.
Link to the Module
Apache 2 on Ubuntu is a bit different than some servers, as Apache is usually controlled in the /etc/apache2 directory.
There will be 2 directories for enabling mods, they are /etc/apache2/mods-enabled and /etc/apache2/mods-available. Mods-enabled includes a list (hopefully links) of files that are enabled via the configuration file (if you look, there’s a command to load all modules in that directory). Mods-available, is all modules you can enable.
To create the link:
ln -s ../mods-available/rewrite.load rewrite.load